Find the most commonly asked questions about RSPO. Researchers now have a clear message: the greatest cause of peat fires are humans. Disclaimer: RSPO standards and other key documents are available for download on this website. In oil palm plantations, nutrients and organic matter accumulate in the top soil and decline with soil depth, ... 22 t fruit bunches ha −1 year −1 on deep peat soils, and 25 t fruit bunches ha −1 year −1 on mixed soils, for palms of 7–18 YAP in Jambi (Euler et al., Reference Euler, Hoffmann, Fathoni and Schwarze 2016b). Oil palm plantations keep a high water table at 50-70 cm by following RSPO’s Best Management Practices for oil palm cultivation on peatland so as to obtain better yields. The composition of the fertilizer will depend on the age of the crop. An indirect way to conduct these negative campaign is by building a negative public opinion  regarding the use of peat soil for palm oil cultivation. If the thickness of the peat layer is superior at 50 cm, then the peat needs to be compacted, using soil compactors, so that it can support the weight of the oil palm tree and thus prevent the tree from slanting. For example, the impact of temperature could be reduced by providing better coverage of the soil … Dr Ir Suwardi, M.Agr, is a lecturer at the Department of Soil Sciences and Land Resources at the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB). The periodic flushings usually continue for two to four years before the conductivity drops below 2000 µmhos cm -1 within the top 45 cm to allow successful planting of oil palms. Jakarta Selatan 12120 Peat depth was between 5.5 and 6.0 m and peat maturity in the surface layer was hemic and sapric. This becomes evident from topsoil characteris-tics of eight representative soil types commonly used for oil palm in Southeast Asia (Table 1). The management of peat land must at least consider a number of practices that differ from those for planting crops in mineral-high soil. For crops that are not yet producing fruits, nitrogen fertilizer needs to be given in a higher dose. Indonesia, The Village (DMPA) program of palm oil company Sinar Mas …, Good water management is the key in the restoration of …, Demand for Indonesian palm oil products is expected to recover …, The Council of Palm Oil Producing Countries (CPOPC) is forecasting …, Indonesia’s palm oil industry remained a main pillar of the …, Hans Nicholas Jong, Opaqueness of palm oil industry does not reflect any goodwill, Gapki optimistic 2017 CPO output to reach 36.5 million ton, Sinar Mas Program Recognized as Contributing to Forest and Ground Fire Prevention, Expert: Good Water Management is Key to Peatland Restoration, Asia’s Main Palm Oil Markets Expected to Recover in 2021, CPOPC Foresees Better Average Palm Oil Prices for 2021, Palm Oil Industry a Major Pillar of the Indonesian Economy in Pandemic Times, Journey Towards Indonesian Palm Oil Sustainability. hydrophobicity of peat soil derived from an oil palm plantation agro-ecosystem and (2) Determine the critical water content of the peat soil environment as it relates to hydrophobicity. In the dry season of 2015, fires in Southeast Asia produced more emissions in a few months than the annual output of Japan or Germany; on some days, fires exceeded the daily emissions of the United States[2]. [1] Miettinen et al (2016). Rewetted peatlands store water, help adapt to a changing climate, and curb off-site drainage impacts on peat swamp forests. Cultivation of oil palm on peat comes with certain challenges, like high CO2 emissions, peat soil subsidence, consequent flooding, and productivity loss. The drainage of these carbon-rich organic soils for plantations leads to massive CO2 emissions, soil subsidence, and ecological and social problems. 2012), especially in Southeast Asia, where 68% of the world’s tropical peatlands are located (Yu et al. From paludiculture starch, edible oils or wood can be harvested[5]. In comparison, oil palm planted in peat land by large companies already have productivity levels of between 20 to 30 tons per hectares per year. Tel: 03-8769 4400 Fax: 03-8925 9446 Website: www.mpob.gov.my HASNOL OTHMAN; ZULKIFLI HASHIM and FARAWAHIDA MOHAMAD DARUS il palm cultivation on peat … They include a physical rehabilitation of the soil, a good water management, fertilizing and a good pick of the planted variety. Drained peatlands are hotspots for fires, and can lead to haze disasters and alarming greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions. Putting water gates at the ends of the drainage canals become also important to be able to maintain the level of the water in the canals. Calum, phosphor, nitrogen, magnesium and boron fertilizers are the important additives. Jenderal Sudirman Kav. With an average production of 20 -25 tons per hectare per year, Indonesia would be able to churn out four tons of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) per hectare per year. Remember that a short trunk will reduce the possibility of a slanting growth. In such a peat land, no physical treatment needs to be conducted. Collectively, Indonesia and Malaysia have more than 24 million hectares of peatland. Of these plantations around 20% is grown on peat soils, which used to be covered by peat swamp forests. This is mainly due to the characteristics of the individual peat soil. Although, a large number of studies have analyzed the hydrophobicity of peat soil, this study emphasizes the analysis of the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic functional groups in the peat soil. At present, many nursery companies are offering new variety of oil palm seedlings. Plantation hydrology … Credit: Photo taken by researcher Stephanie Evers Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The peat soil characteristics are presented in Table 1. Land cover distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with changes since 1990. During the seedling period and when the plant is still very young, the addition of humid materials that is sprayed on the ground around the plant becomes important to accelerate growth. Rewetting may involve either rehabilitation back to a natural state, or implementation of alternative forms of utilisation, such as paludiculture, the economic use of rewetted peatlands by cultivation of alternative species that can cope with high water conditions, such as marshland. 21 E Kebayoran Baru 13, No. This can be achieved by digging drainage canals that will enable maintaining the water table at the desired depth. Wilmar’s peat-free palm oil policy does not mean it will stop sourcing palm oil from Sarawak, but rather that it recognizes that peatlands are a valuable resource to be protected. Glob. Peat soil, with its low PH and low micro and macro nutrient content, are poor soil for growing plants, especially commodity crops in general. Peat swamp deforestation and drainage for new oil palm plantations in North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest, Malaysia. 85 % or more of this production cost goes into the purchase of fertilizers alone. From 1990 to 2010, forest cover in the peatlands of Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo fell from 77% to 36% (Li et al. In Malaysia, the recommended annual N fertilizer for immature and … The drainage required for palm oil cultivation causes peat oxidation, and makes the soil susceptible to fires and floods. Front. Only palm oil, rubber and acacia trees, tenacious trees that can grow in poor soil, can thrive on peat land. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) fertilization is added to promote palm productivity. Peatlands in their natural state are wet organic soils formed over thousands of years from plant remains, and fall under the classification of organic soils. Mineral soil is mixed with peat soil to fill the hole where the seedlings are planted. In peat soil areas, the need for ground cover crop establishment becomes more crucial. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted from January to April 2012. Since the 1980s, oil palm has successfully been grown on peatlands in Southeast Asia. The productivity of oil palms managed by smallholders in peat land are in general still low, at around 10 to 15 tons per hectares per year. A bilingual platform to serve a healthier and more constructive public discourse on sustainability in the palm oil industry. Indonesia’s peat land cover a surface of some 14.9 million hectares, mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. fluxes from two sites of oil palm plantation with different peat characteristics and analyzed the correlation with groundwater level, soil temperature, air temperature, gravimetric water content, peat pH, oxidative reductive potential, and crop age. tropical soils, soil management, oil palm, marginal soils, soil limitations JOPE 2013,4:1-16 1. The low productivity of palm oil smallholders planting in peat soil are mostly caused by a lack of knowledge and also capital, so that they are not aware or capable to conduct the necessary special treatment for planting oil palm in peat land. Humid material contain growth hormones. Address Fertilizer management constitutes the largest field cost item in well-run oil palm plantations in Malaysia. They will be able to gain more profit because of higher yields. The productivity of oil palms managed by smallholders in peat land are in general still low, at around 10 to 15 tons per hectares per year. To be RSPO-certified, palm oil must not come from land that has been cleared by fire or by destroying primary forest. LCC which have been success-fully used as cover crops in oil palm plantations include Pueraria javanicaP. During the rainy seasons, these water gates are left open while in dry seasons, they should remain closely shut. The area of peatland within palm oil concessions, however, is much larger, and many are unplanted but degraded. As Indian climate is not suitable for evenly distribution of the rain, farmers are advised to go for assured irrigated conditions for oil palm cultivation. Once the above is achieved, field drains are then constructed to lower the water table to between 50 to 70 cm from the soil surface. Plantation hydrology is connected with the surrounding areas, which is why the impact of drainage can be felt up to 5 kilometres from a plantation boundary, and can trigger fires outside of the plantation. Development of oil palm plantations on peat land is therefore not m new. Micro fertilizers such as boron also need to be given considering that peat soil are especially poor in micro nutrient. Globally, a few definitions are applied, which differ according to the percentage of organic matter and minimum thickness of the organic layers. 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