The question remains as to whether these rapid rates of both lateral and vertical motion can be accounted for in a thrust‐loading type of model such as the one discussed above. Banding in this rock is a result of mineral segregation into separate, typically light- and dark-colored layers. Despite its foliated structure, however, unlike schists, gneiss does not exhibit perfect cleavage. Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Gneiss may have a protolith of any kind of rock, be it igneous, sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock. The pluton emplacement pressures were derived by Al‐in‐hornblende barometry and garnet‐biotite‐muscovite‐plagioclase barometry [Dawes, 1993], and they agree with both qualitative indicators of high‐pressure crystallization such as the presence of magmatic epidote [Dawes, 1993; Zen, 1985; Zen and Hammarstrom, 1984] and peak pressures of 9–11 kbar determined from their host rocks [Valley et al., 2003]. So, when hammered, gneiss behaves like a uniform homogenous rock. Trollstigen, Norway. The presence of chaotically zoned rims in both samples is best explained by recrystallization or dissolution and reprecipitation along grain boundaries during a metamorphic event [Corfu et al., 2003; Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003]. This model predicts that the Swakane Gneiss forms a regionally extensive layer beneath the Cascades core and is only exposed within a tectonic window. Provenance and metamorphism of the Swakane Gneiss: Implications for incorporation of sediment into the deep levels of the North Cascades continental magmatic arc, Washington. Several zircon analyses lie on or near concordia with 206Pb/238U dates that range from 68.3 ± 0.2 Ma to 86.2 ± 1.0 Ma (Table 1). Therefore it is unlikely that zircon with oscillatory growth zonation could have crystallized within small melt pods produced during metamorphism of the gneiss. Fast sediment underplating and essentially coeval juvenile magmatism in the Ordovician margin of Gondwana, Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. Grove et al., 2003; Haxel et al., 2002], and a schematic illustration of these mechanisms, modified from Haxel et al. Even in the latter case, gneissic banding has nothing to do with original layering of sedimentary rocks. Width of sample 10 cm. The differences between their peak metamorphic conditions would have to be explained by an additional mechanism. Gneiss (pronounced "nice") is a metamorphic rock consisting mostly of quartz and feldspar and showing distinct layering or banding.  Mineral separation was carried out according to standard crushing, heavy liquid, and magnetic separation techniques. The predominant soil type in the watershed ( Fig. shale >>> slate >>> phyllite >>> schist >>> gneiss.  In order to interpret the petrologic significance of the zircon analyses, zircon grains representing the range of morphologies from samples SW3B and SW2 were imaged using cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques (Figures 5 and 6; Appendix A). Differentiation of the continental crust by relamination. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. A variety of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks can be the protolith of hornfels. What is the protolith of gneiss? Geophysics, Mathematical Rock group: Metamorphic: Metamorphism type: Regional: Metamorphic rock class: Metapelitic Metabasic (mafic gneiss) Marl Granitic (granitic gneiss) Protoliths: Schist Igneous rocks such as granite: Gneiss in Hand Sample. Pb and U were separated from the sample using an HCl‐based anion exchange procedure modified after Krogh  and collected in a single beaker for isotope analysis. Protolith consisted primarily of mafic metavolcanic rocks. The rock specimens come from southern Norway and are available in various optional sizes. Thus a granite or a diorite might have been the protolith for a gneiss. Geology and Geophysics, Physical Several generations of these sheets intrude the Swakane Gneiss with some concordant to host rock foliation, whereas others cut foliation but are also deformed [Boysun, 2004; Boysun and Paterson, 2002]. Gneiss is difficult to describe because it varies to such a wide extent. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. A sample from an unknown location, possibly from Karelia.  A second mechanism that could account for the rapid burial of the Swakane protolith is underthrusting of trench and/or accretionary complex sediments (Figure 8c) as has been proposed for southern California. The dominant sense of motion along the decollement is top‐to‐NNE shear, which is, in part, responsible for exhumation of the gneiss under decreasing temperature conditions [Alsleben, 2000; Paterson et al., 2004]. Basalt-Amphibolite Conglomerate-Metaconglomerate Dolostone-Marble Limestone-Marble Granite-Gneiss Sandstone-Quartzite Shale-Slate. Thickness varies; averages 1,130 m. U-Pb analysis of zircon and sphene from the Rope Ferry yields a 620+/-3 Ma age.  The great depth to which the Swakane Gneiss was buried also requires a large lateral translation beneath the arc. The Lewisian complex or Lewisian gneiss is a suite of Precambrian metamorphic rocks that outcrop in the northwestern part of Scotland, forming part of the Hebridean Terrane and the North Atlantic Craton.These rocks are of Archaean and Paleoproterozoic age, ranging from 3.0–1.7 billion years ().They form the basement on which the Torridonian and Moine Supergroup sediments were deposited. The Mejillonia suspect terrane (Northern Chile): Late Triassic fast burial and metamorphism of sediments in a magmatic arc environment extending into the Early Jurassic. However, the tectonic affinity of the structurally deepest terrane, the 9–12 kbar Swakane Gneiss, is distinctly different from other terranes in the core; it is not intruded by arc‐related plutons and contains abundant Precambrian zircons.